Wildfires in the Brazilian Amazon have become a serious concern for scientists, jeopardizing environmental progress in one of the world’s most critical carbon sinks. In a letter published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, researchers from the University of East Anglia (UEA), the University of South Alabama, Michigan State University, the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil, and other institutions have raised the alarm. They warn that despite efforts to reduce deforestation, increasing wildfires are posing new challenges.
Dr. Matthew Jones, a Research Fellow at UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences, explains that climate change has led to a rise in drought and extreme heat, making forests more susceptible to fires. Additionally, deforestation and the expansion of agriculture have weakened the resilience of the region’s forests, making them more prone to burning. As a result, wildfires have become far more common than in a normally functioning rainforest.
Although deforestation rates have been declining in 2023, with a 42% decrease in alerts between January and July compared to the same period in 2022, the number of active fires has reached its highest peak since 2007. The researchers highlight that previous spikes in fire counts were associated with widespread deforestation, a major driver of fires. However, this year’s fire counts indicate a decoupling of forest fires from deforestation, with only 19% of the fires being related to recent deforestation.
The 2023 El Niño has resulted in hotter and drier climate conditions, which are impacting parts of the Amazon region and potentially contributing to the increase in fires. The researchers also suggest that the weakened enforcement of environmental laws under President Bolsonaro may have a lag effect on fire counts. Mechanical felling of forests in recent years has made these areas more susceptible to burning, as they are now dry enough to catch fire. Additionally, anticipating a fire moratorium later this year, landholders may be burning pastures earlier in the dry season.
Indigenous communities have historically used fire in their agriculture practices but have not faced megafires like those seen today. The current situation is driven by larger-scale actors, climate change, and forest fragmentation. Dr. Rachel Carmenta, a lecturer in climate change and international development at UEA, emphasizes the double burden faced by these communities. They are often blamed for fires, even though they suffer the most when the forest and its resources are damaged. Dr. Carmenta stresses the need for effective and equitable fire governance to avoid further marginalizing forest-dependent peoples.
The authors of the letter underscore the importance of nuanced scientific research and management actions to tackle the growing threat of wildfires. They suggest implementing measures such as reforestation, forest management, and agroforestry to prevent the risk of “runaway” forest fires and degradation. Strong, equitable, and coordinated international efforts are needed to address this issue effectively.
The authors call for Brazil, other Amazon nations, and the international community to cooperate and commit to supporting research and governance for fire-safe land management. They stress the importance of curbing forest loss and transitioning from a commodity-based economic model to a sustainable bioeconomy that benefits all Amazonians and Amazon nations. While the recent Belém Declaration established important objectives, it fell short of making a strong commitment to zero deforestation by 2030 or reducing forest fire frequency substantially.
The increasing number of uncontrolled wildfires in the Brazilian Amazon presents a significant challenge to environmental gains in the region. The combination of climate change, deforestation, and weakened governance has made the forests more vulnerable to fires. To address this issue, a multifaceted approach is required, combining scientific research, effective fire governance, and international cooperation. Only through concerted efforts can we protect the Amazon rainforest and ensure a sustainable future for all those who depend on it.