In today’s digital age, the amount of data being generated is growing exponentially. The consequent increase in data center operations is not only energy-intensive but also a major contributor to environmental pollution. To address this issue, researchers have been exploring polygonal computing systems with lower power consumption and higher computation speed. However, these systems still operate with electrical signals, similar to traditional binary computing systems, limiting their ability to handle the massive demands of data processing.
Dr. Do Kyung Hwang from the Center for Opto-Electronic Materials & Devices at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Professor Jong-Soo Lee from the Department of Energy Science & Engineering at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) have made a groundbreaking discovery. They have developed a novel semiconductor artificial junction material, known as zero-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D-0D), and demonstrated its potential as a next-generation memory powered by light. By transmitting data through light instead of electrical signals between computing and storage components, the processing speed can be significantly enhanced.
The research team successfully fabricated a core-shell structure comprising quantum dots with zinc sulfide (ZnS) on the surface of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and a molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) semiconductor. This innovative material allows for the storage and manipulation of electronic states within quantum dots measuring less than 10 nm. When light is applied to the cadmium selenide core, electrons flow out of the molybdenum sulfide semiconductor, creating conductive holes in the core. Additionally, the electron state inside cadmium selenide is quantized.
The application of intermittent light pulses sequentially traps electrons in the electron band, resulting in a change in the resistance of the molybdenum sulfide through the field effect. The resistance changes in a cascading manner, depending on the number of light pulses. Unlike conventional memory, which only has 0 and 1 states, this process allows for the division and maintenance of more than 0 and 10 states. Furthermore, the zinc sulfide shell prevents charge leakage between neighboring quantum dots, enabling each quantum dot to function as an independent memory unit.
Unlike previous 2D-0D semiconductor artificial junction structures that merely amplified signals from light sensors, the quantum dot structure developed by the research team closely mimics the floating gate memory structure, demonstrating its potential as a next-generation optical memory. The team conducted neural network modeling using the CIFAR-10 dataset and achieved an impressive 91% recognition rate, validating the effectiveness of the polynomial memory phenomenon.
The discovery of this zero-dimensional and two-dimensional semiconductor artificial junction material marks a significant advancement in data processing technology. By harnessing the power of light, this breakthrough promises to revolutionize the speed and efficiency of data centers. With the ability to handle the ever-increasing amount of data being generated, these next-generation optical memories have the potential to transform the way we store, process, and analyze information.
In a world plagued by the challenges of data deluge and environmental pollution, the development of new computing systems with low power consumption and high computation speed is crucial. The zero-dimensional and two-dimensional semiconductor artificial junction material, powered by light, represents a major leap forward in data processing technology. Its ability to store and manipulate electronic states within quantum dots, combined with its potential for multiple states beyond binary memory, makes it a game changer in the field of data processing. As further advancements are made, we can envision a future where data centers operate in a more sustainable and efficient manner, catering to the ever-growing demands of the digital era.