In a groundbreaking study, a team of scientists at NYU Abu Dhabi’s Smart Materials Lab and Center for Smart Engineering Materials (CSEM) has uncovered the unique mechanism employed by a desert plant to extract moisture from the arid environment. The researchers’ findings not only shed light on the plant’s survival strategy but also pave the way for the development of new technologies in water harvesting and cloud seeding.
The Resilient Desert Shrub: Tamarix aphylla
Tamarix aphylla, commonly known as athel tamarisk, is a halophytic desert shrub native to the United Arab Emirates. What sets this plant apart is its ability to thrive in hypersaline conditions, making it a remarkable species within the arid ecosystem. Over time, Tamarix aphylla has evolved to take advantage of the humidity and fog prevalent in the UAE, enabling it to survive the harsh desert conditions.
The ability of plants and animals in arid regions to harness untapped water sources like fog and dew has intrigued scientists for years. These living organisms have developed unique water-harvesting mechanisms and morphophysiological traits that allow them to collect and utilize aerial humidity effectively. By studying the fundamental principles governing these natural processes, researchers hope to improve existing water-collection technologies and maximize the efficiency of these methods.
Unveiling Tamarix aphylla’s Secrets
In their paper titled “Harvesting of Aerial Humidity with Natural Hygroscopic Salt Excretions,” published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team of scientists from NYU Abu Dhabi reveals their exploration of the physicochemical aspects of Tamarix aphylla’s water collection mechanisms. The plant absorbs saline water from the soil through its roots, filters out the salt, and excretes a concentrated salt solution onto the surface of its leaves.
Through their research, the scientists discovered that as the salt solution undergoes evaporation, it transforms into a hygroscopic crystalline mixture composed of various minerals. Surprisingly, some of these salt crystals have the ability to attract moisture from the air, even in relatively low humidity conditions (approximately 55% relative humidity). The moisture then condenses onto the plant’s leaves, where it is absorbed, ensuring the plant’s survival in the harsh desert environment.
The team’s findings hold considerable promise for advancing water-collection technologies and cloud seeding practices. By utilizing biogenic salt mixtures, inspired by Tamarix aphylla’s natural salt excretions, researchers can design environmentally friendly formulations for efficient aerial water harvesting and cloud seeding even in low humidity conditions. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize cloud seeding practices, making them more effective and aligning with the responsible use of scarce water resources.
Meeting the Challenge of Freshwater Scarcity
The global scarcity of freshwater has necessitated research into alternative water-harvesting technologies. In water-stressed regions, supplementary methods are crucial to supplement conventional water resources. The water-harvesting mechanism discovered by the research team offers a bioinspired approach using environmentally benign salts as moisture adsorbents. This approach has the potential to complement existing water-collection and cloud-seeding technologies, providing a sustainable solution to the challenge of freshwater scarcity.
The remarkable water-harvesting abilities of Tamarix aphylla, a desert shrub native to the UAE, have captivated scientists and opened new avenues for technological advancements. By learning from the plant’s natural water collection mechanisms, researchers have unlocked the potential to develop innovative methods for harvesting aerial water and improving cloud seeding practices. This research not only contributes to the responsible use of water resources but also offers hope for water-stressed regions facing the challenges of freshwater scarcity.