A new report in Nature Geoscience sheds light on the concerning issue of air pollution in Africa, highlighting the urgent need for international action to address this growing problem. Over the past five decades, African nations have witnessed a rapid deterioration in air quality, resulting in some of the most polluted cities in the world. These alarming levels of particulate matter pose a significant threat to public health, with concentrations five to ten times higher than the World Health Organization’s recommendations. As populations continue to grow and industrialization accelerates, the situation is predicted to worsen. Unfortunately, despite the severity of the issue, only a minimal amount of global air pollution funding, approximately 0.01%, is currently allocated to Africa.
Various factors contribute to the poor air quality in African nations. The burning of biomass fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting, as well as crude oil exploitation, coal mining industries, and the import of old vehicles from Europe, all contribute to the problem. The consequences of inhaling this dangerous air are complex and potentially fatal, affecting the health of both African citizens and the global population. Moreover, the increasing air pollution in Africa hinders efforts to meet global climate targets and address the climate emergency, further emphasizing the need for immediate action.
Past Efforts and Ongoing Challenges
Efforts have been made to tackle air pollution in Africa, with ten major African cities signing the C40 Clean Air Declaration. Additionally, initiatives to monitor air pollution levels and collect vital data have gained momentum. However, these endeavors are far from sufficient. To achieve real change, regional and international collaboration is paramount. By coordinating their efforts, stakeholders can leverage existing knowledge on controlling and reducing air pollution, ultimately making a significant impact.
The researchers behind the Nature Geoscience report emphasize several areas that require urgent collaboration and intervention:
Continuous Air Monitoring
Establishing a comprehensive network of sensors to monitor air pollution variations and track progress is crucial. Such continuous monitoring will provide a detailed understanding of the problem, enabling effective countermeasures.
Investment in Clean Energy
Clean energy sources such as solar, hydropower, and wind must be prioritized to meet Africa’s rapidly increasing energy demand. By doubling investment in clean energy by 2040, countries can curb reliance on polluting energy sources.
Improved Waste Management
Efficient solid waste management systems are essential to prevent dumping and burning of waste. Investing in improved waste management practices will facilitate reuse, recycling, and recovery, leading to a cleaner and healthier environment.
Adoption of Environmentally Friendly Technology
African countries need to invest in environmentally friendly and sustainable technologies. This will allow for economic growth while avoiding outdated and polluting technologies imported from developed nations.
Significant improvements in infrastructure are necessary to reduce emissions from the transport sector. This includes enhancing public transportation options and implementing higher emission standards for both fuel and imported vehicles.
An Inclusive Approach
Dr. Gabriel Okello, co-author of the report, emphasizes the complexity of air pollution and the need for ambitious, collaborative, and participatory approaches. Involving stakeholders from various sectors, including policy makers, academia, business, and communities, is essential to co-design and co-produce context-specific interventions. Increased investment in addressing air pollution will further catalyze action.
Air pollution disproportionately affects vulnerable populations, such as the poor, women, and children. These groups face higher exposure to pollutants and suffer more severe health impacts. Therefore, action towards cleaner air also serves to address social inequalities and promote a healthier environment.
A Customized Solution for Each Region
Professor Pope concludes that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to Africa’s air quality problems. Each region and population faces unique challenges that require tailored interventions. Consequently, a comprehensive and multifaceted approach is crucial in addressing Africa’s air pollution crisis effectively.
The urgency of addressing air pollution in Africa cannot be overstated. With some of the most polluted cities in the world, African nations face severe health risks and contribute to the global climate emergency. However, by fostering international collaboration, investing in clean energy, enhancing waste management, adopting sustainable technologies, and improving infrastructure, positive change can be achieved. The time to act is now, and by working together, we can ensure a cleaner and healthier future for Africa and the world.