Synthetic polymers have become an integral part of our everyday lives, present in an array of products ranging from clothing to cookware. The intricate molecular structure of these polymers, consisting of long chains of monomer building blocks, contributes to the functionality and versatility of these materials. The ability to fine-tune the properties of polymers is crucial, and copolymers, which incorporate different types of monomers within the same chain, offer an excellent means to achieve this. However, until recently, scientists faced challenges in accurately sequencing synthetic copolymers, hindering a comprehensive understanding of polymer composition.
A breakthrough in the field of polymer chemistry has come in the form of CREATS (Coupled REaction Approach Toward Super-resolution imaging). This innovative technique, developed by Professor Peng Chen and his team at the College of Arts and Sciences, enables the imaging of polymerization catalysis reactions at single-monomer resolution, allowing for the differentiation of monomers from one another through fluorescent signaling. The application of CREATS in sequencing synthetic polymers marks a significant advancement in polymer chemistry, as detailed in the groundbreaking publication “Optical Sequencing of Single Synthetic Polymers” in Nature Chemistry.
Synthetic polymers are composed of monomer units linked together, akin to a string of beads. In the case of simple polymers, the monomers are identical. However, the inclusion of different monomers in copolymers gives rise to complex properties, such as stiffness or flexibility. The precise arrangement of monomers within a copolymer plays a crucial role in determining its unique characteristics. This principle also holds true for natural polymers, where the specific sequence of monomers in proteins, for example, dictates their function. In contrast, synthetic polymers lack the same level of control over monomer arrangement, making sequencing copolymers challenging.
The heterogeneity in synthetic polymers poses a significant obstacle to sequencing copolymers accurately. Individual polymer chains exhibit variations in length, composition, and sequence, necessitating the development of single-polymer sequencing methods capable of resolving and identifying individual monomers. While some existing techniques permit control over monomer arrangement in short polymers of 10 to 20 monomers, a more comprehensive approach was needed to overcome the limitations in polymer sequencing.
The Power of CREATS
With the introduction of CREATS, polymer sequencing has reached unparalleled precision. This remarkable technique enables the determination of the sequence of a polymer as it is formed, one monomer at a time. CREATS achieves this by coupling the polymerization reaction with another reaction that generates fluorescent signals. Each added monomer emits a distinct puff of light induced by a laser, appearing as either green or yellow. The color of the emitted light allows for the identification of the specific monomer added to the polymer chain, revolutionizing the field of polymer chemistry.
The ability to determine the sequence of individual polymers opens new avenues for research and development in polymer design. To date, scientists have focused on measuring the properties of synthetic polymers. By combining these property measurements with the sequence information obtained through CREATS, researchers can establish correlations between polymer structure and function. This integration of data will provide valuable insights and guiding principles for designing polymers with desired properties, contributing to advancements in diverse fields, including materials science, engineering, and biomedicine.
The development of CREATS represents a significant milestone in the field of polymer chemistry. This groundbreaking technique empowers scientists with the ability to sequence synthetic polymers with unprecedented accuracy, shedding light on the complexity of these materials. The delicate arrangement of monomers within copolymers plays a crucial role in determining their properties, and CREATS allows for fine-tuning and design based on sequence information. The integration of structure-function relationships will pave the way for the creation of tailor-made polymers with specific properties, revolutionizing industries and opening up new possibilities for technological advancements. The future of polymer chemistry is undoubtedly shaped by the advancements made possible through CREATS, propelling us towards a more sophisticated understanding and mastery of synthetic polymers.