Earlier this year, the astronomical community had its hopes dashed when the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) discovered that TRAPPIST-1b, an Earth-like exoplanet, lacked a detectable atmosphere. However, new near-infrared spectroscopic observations from the JWST indicate that the behavior of the exoplanet’s host star may be interfering with our ability to make accurate measurements of the exoplanet. This discovery, led by astronomer Olivia Lim of the University of Montreal, suggests that stellar contamination can produce false detections of molecules unrelated to the exoplanet.
Stars, contrary to popular belief, do not maintain a constant level of brightness at all times. Variations such as starspots and faculae cause dimming and spots of brightness, respectively. These fluctuations in a star’s brightness can have a significant impact on spectroscopic observations of exoplanet atmospheres. Scientists observe these exoplanet atmospheres when the exoplanet transits between the observer and its host star. During this transit, the star’s light slightly dims, with some light passing through the exoplanet’s atmosphere around the edge of its planetary disk. Researchers examine changes in the spectrum of light during these transits to search for molecular signatures indicating the presence of specific molecules. However, stellar activity, including spots, faculae, and even flares, can contaminate the spectroscopic observations.
Astronomer Olivia Lim explains, “In addition to the contamination from stellar spots and faculae, we saw a stellar flare, an unpredictable event during which the star looks brighter for several minutes or hours. This flare affected our measurement of the amount of light blocked by the planet. Such signatures of stellar activity are difficult to model, but we need to account for them to ensure that we interpret the data correctly.”
To address the issue of stellar contamination, the research team modeled the contamination and conducted two analyses of the data. The first analysis removed the effects of stellar contamination, while the second analysis left it intact. Surprisingly, both sets of results appeared quite similar. The spectrum of TRAPPIST-1b in both cases was more or less the same, confirming previous mid-infrared photometric results that showed the exoplanet lacked an atmosphere. However, this study highlighted the crucial importance of considering stellar contamination when analyzing data.
The TRAPPIST-1 system is particularly intriguing as it consists of seven exoplanets, three of which are located in the star’s habitable zone. These habitable zone worlds are at a comfortable distance from the star, where temperatures are neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. Although the JWST has not yet observed these habitable zone planets, the identification of stellar contamination as a factor in data analysis is a significant development. Scientists can now take this into account when interpreting future observations to ensure accurate and reliable results.
Stellar contamination poses challenges in the study of exoplanets. The presence of starspots, faculae, and flares can complicate spectroscopic observations by contaminating the data. Understanding and modeling the effects of stellar activity are critical to ensure accurate interpretations of exoplanet atmospheres. While the lack of an atmosphere on TRAPPIST-1b was not surprising, it highlights the potential for false detections of molecules due to stellar contamination. As scientists move forward with the investigation of the TRAPPIST-1 system and other exoplanets, the incorporation of stellar contamination considerations will be vital to obtain the most reliable and meaningful results.