The impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on daily life cannot be understated. Individuals with OSA often experience excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), making it challenging to complete simple tasks and leading to dangerous situations, such as falling asleep while driving or eating. While positive airway pressure (PAP) masks are commonly used to manage OSA, they do not always eliminate EDS. In an effort to improve treatment options, researchers have identified several medications that show promise in combating EDS in individuals with OSA.
In a recent study published in May, resident physician Tyler Pitre and his colleagues from McMaster University reviewed 14 previous clinical trials involving 3,085 individuals with OSA and EDS. The researchers specifically examined the comparative effectiveness of three anti-fatigue medications: solriamfetol, armodafinil-modafinil, and pitolisant. The results showed that all three medications were more effective than placebos in reducing EDS, although to varying degrees.
Combining the data from the 14 trials, the study found that solriamfetol produced the most significant improvement in wakefulness compared to a placebo. While armodafinil-modafinil and pitolisant also showed some improvement in wakefulness measures, the evidence was not as strong. Additionally, the study highlighted potential side effects associated with armodafinil-modafinil and solriamfetol, with patients more likely to discontinue the use of the former. It is important to note that these findings are based on short-term use, and more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of these medications on individuals with OSA and EDS.
Exploring Potential Applications
Aside from individuals with OSA and EDS, these anti-fatigue medications may have broader applications in treating related conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and long COVID. Assistant anesthesia professor Dena Zeraatkar highlights the need for further investigation into the effectiveness of these medications for these conditions. However, it is important to acknowledge that the underlying causes of chronic fatigue and long COVID are yet to be fully understood, and any treatment should ideally target these root causes.
Two of the medications studied, armodafinil-modafinil and solriamfetol, are already prescribed for OSA and EDS, while pitolisant is still under review by the US FDA. The choice of medication depends on various factors, including the patient’s personal health profile. It is worth noting that this study is the first to directly compare the effectiveness of these medications against each other. However, caution must be exercised as some of these medications may have side effects. For example, solriamfetol has been linked to an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits when prescribing these medications.
The prevalence of OSA is significant, with an estimated 15 to 30 percent of people in North America diagnosed with the condition. However, many others remain undiagnosed, suggesting that the actual prevalence could be much higher. Given the substantial number of individuals affected by OSA globally, there is an urgent need for improved treatment options. The findings of this study provide hope by identifying potential medications that can alleviate EDS in individuals with OSA. Nonetheless, further research is necessary to fully understand the long-term effects and to establish the safety and efficacy of these medications.
The discovery of anti-fatigue medications with the potential to alleviate excessive daytime sleepiness in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea is a significant development. Solriamfetol, armodafinil-modafinil, and pitolisant have all shown promise in reducing EDS, although solriamfetol appears to have the most substantial impact. However, the long-term effects and potential side effects need to be thoroughly investigated to ensure the safety and effectiveness of these medications. Additionally, exploring the applications of these medications in treating related conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome and long COVID may open new avenues for improving the lives of individuals suffering from these debilitating illnesses. As the prevalence of OSA continues to rise, finding better treatment options becomes increasingly crucial. With further research and development, these medications may offer much-needed relief to individuals with OSA and EDS, allowing them to regain control of their daily lives.