Chemistry plays a pivotal role in the development of new pharmaceuticals, cleaner fuels, and biodegradable plastics. To meet the ever-growing needs of society, chemists are continuously striving to create new synthesis methods that yield products not naturally found. In a groundbreaking study, a research group at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), in collaboration with Cardiff University, has discovered how to manipulate a chemical reaction using an external electric field, acting as a powerful “switch”. This innovative technique, published in Science Advances, holds the potential to revolutionize organic synthesis, offering a greener approach and simplified control over chemical reactions.
Organic synthesis, often referred to as the creation of complex organic chemical compounds from simpler reagents, is a fundamental process in the production of drugs, polymers, agrochemicals, pigments, and fragrances. Chemists meticulously assemble small molecules through successive reactions to ultimately achieve the desired end products. The precise control of these chemical reactions is essential to maximize efficiency and minimize resource consumption. Enhancing control and simplifying the operation of organic synthesis remains a prominent challenge in the field of chemistry.
Researchers, led by Professor Stefan Matile from UNIGE’s Faculty of Science, part of the National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) Molecular Systems Engineering, have delved into the intricacies of electron movement within molecules. They discovered that molecular transformations occur when electrons, negatively charged elementary particles, shift from one region of a molecule to another. Captivated by the potential to control these electrons, the researchers explored the influence of external electric fields on chemical reactions. Although this concept appears simple and promising in theory, previous implementations have encountered limitations and demonstrated suboptimal performance.
Through collaboration with Professor Thomas Wirth from Cardiff University, Professor Matile’s team has successfully harnessed the power of an external electric field to activate an organic chemical reaction. Their breakthrough lies in the development of an electrochemical microfluidic reactor, capable of initiating chemical reactions simply by toggling a switch. The reactor consists of a small box within which the reaction mixture flows between two square plates that serve as electrodes. These plates, coated with carbon nanotubes, generate the electric field necessary for activation. As the reactants circulate through the reactor, weak interactions with the carbon nanotubes expose them to the electric field, inducing electronic polarization and triggering the desired chemical transformation.
Conventional methods of achieving desired chemical bonds involve complex, multi-step strategies that consume significant resources and energy. The novel electrochemical microfluidic reactor proposed by Professors Matile and Wirth has the potential to simplify these strategies, consequently reducing the carbon footprint associated with chemical syntheses. Moreover, this device offers unparalleled control, likening it to the particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva, albeit accelerating electrons during molecular transformations.
While the potential of this revolutionary approach is undeniably promising, further research breakthroughs are necessary to unlock its full capabilities. Nevertheless, this method holds great potential for application in organic chemistry in the near future, rendering the production of drugs, fuels, and plastics more sustainable and controllable. By leveraging external electric fields as a catalyst, this groundbreaking technique has paved the way for greener synthesis methods, marking a significant milestone in the field of chemistry. With human ingenuity and perseverance, we may witness a new era of chemical synthesis that aligns harmoniously with the principles of sustainability and efficiency.